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Anísio Teixeira

1900
Anísio Spínola Teixeira is born in Caetité, in the backlands of Bahia, on July 12, to Deocleciano Pires Teixeira and Ánna Spínola Teixeira.

1912
Enrolled at the São Luiz Gonzaga Institute, the Jesuit college in Caetité, starting high school.

1914
Transferred to the Antônio Vieira College, also Jesuit, in Salvador.

1922
Graduates as a Bachelor of Law from the Faculty of Law, University of Rio de Janeiro.

1924
Appointed on April 9 to the post of inspector-general of education in Bahia, at the invitation of Governor Francisco Marques de Góes Calmon.

1925
Travels to Europe, on an observational and educational trip to France and Belgium, accompanied by the Archbishop-Primate of Bahia, Dom Augusto Álvaro da Silva.

1927
Travels to the United States for studies on school organisation and comes into contact with the ideas of philosopher John Dewey.

1928
Resigns from the post of inspector-general of education for incompatibility with the new governor of Bahia, Vital Henrique Batista Soares. He is appointed professor at the Escola Normal (Normal School) of Salvador to teach philosophy and history of education. Travels back to the United States. Publishes Aspectos americanos da educação (Aspects of American Education), in reviewing the functioning of American educational institutions and the ideas of John Dewey.

1929
Graduates as Master of Arts after attending the Teachers College at Columbia University on a ten-month scholarship and returns to Brazil.

1930
Establishes new programs for the disciplines of primary and fundamental schools of Bahia. Begins to teach Philosophy of Education at the National School of Educationin Salvador. Writes the article Por que Escola Nova? (Why the New School?).On the political scene, the October 3rd revolution breaks out in Rio Grande do Sul, Minas Gerais and the Northeast states. On 24 October, Washington Luísi s deposed from the presidency, and on 3 November, Vargas is sworn in as head of the Provisional Government.

1931
At the invitation of Pedro Ernesto Batista, then-interventor in the Federal District, he is appointed General Director of Public Instruction in Rio de Janeiro. Integrates a committee of the Ministry of Education and Health, created by the new government, which is responsible for the study for the reorganisation of national secondary education.

1932
In March, creates the Institute of Educationin Rio de Janeiro, integrating the former Normal School with kindergarten, primary and secondary courses into one establishment. Becomes Professor of Philosophy of Education at the Institute and assumes the presidency of the Brazilian Association of Education. He isone of the signatories of the Manifesto of the Pioneers of the New Education. Publishes Educação progressiva: uma introdução à filosofia da educação (Progressive Education: an introduction to philosophy of education). He marries Emilia Telles Ferreira, with whom he will have four children.

1933
Appointed director of the newly-created Department of Education of the Federal District.

1934
Publishes Em marcha para a democracia (Marching to Democracy).

1935
Appointed Secretary-General for Education and Culture of the federal capital, is responsible for creating the University of the Federal District. After the communist uprising of November and the arrest of Mayor Pedro Ernesto, he is stripped of his duties on 1 December, on charges of involvement with the National Liberation Alliance (ANL).

1936
Publishes Educação para a democracia: introdução à administração escolar (Education for Democracy: an introduction to the school administration).

1937-1945
During the dictatorship of the ‘Estado Novo’ (New State), he departs from educational activities. He is dedicated to the exploration and export of manganese, limestone and cement, car sales and the translation of books for the Companhia Editora Nacional(National Publishing Company).

1938     
University of the Federal District closed down.

1945
On 2 December, elections are held for the presidency of Republic and for the National Constituent Assembly.

1946
Leaves Bahia to become director of higher education of the newly established UNESCO, the United Nations agency focused on education, science and culture, and goes to reside initially in London and then in Paris.

1947
Assumes the Department of Education and Health of Bahia, in the government of Otávio Mangabeira.

1950
Inaugurated in October, according to his owndesign, the Centro Educacional Carneiro (Carneiro Educational Centre), known as Escola Parque(Park School), in the working-class neighbourhood of Liberdade in Salvador.

1951
Appointed Secretary General of the National Campaign for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), founded on July 11. Director, National Institute of Pedagogical Studies (INEP).

1955
As director of INEP, creates the Brazilian Centre for Educational Research.

1956
Publishes A educação e a crise brasileira (Education and the Brazilian Crisis).

1957
Publishes Educação não é privilégio (Education is not a Privilege).

1961
Participates in the discussion of the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education. Establishmentof the University of Brasilia (UNB), a project of which he was a creator.

1962
Appointed member of the Federal Council of Education.

1963
Holds the presidency of the National Primary Education Commission. Works as interim rector of the University of Brasilia (UNB), replacing Darcy Ribeiro.

1964
After the overthrow of President João Goulart in a military coup on March 31, is included in the proceedings for the determination of administrative irregularities at UNB. Compulsorily retired, travels to the United States at the invitation of Columbia University to join its faculty as a visiting scholar.

1965
He is invited to teach at New York University.

1966
He teaches at the University of California. Returns to Brazil and became a consultant for the Getúlio Vargas Foundation.

1967
Publishes Educação é um direito(Education is a Right).

1969
Publishes Educação no Brasil (Education in Brazil) and Educação e o mundo moderno (Education and the Modern World)

1970
Receives the title of emeritus professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro.

1971
On March 11, turns up dead in the elevator shaft of the building where his friend, Aurelio Buarque de Holanda, lived in Rio de Janeiro, whom he was visiting to get support for his candidacy for the Brazilian Academy of Letters.

Translated by Peter Leamy, February 2012.

SOURCE CONSULTED:

ANÍSIO Teixeira. [Photo this text]. Available at: <http://educacao.uol.com.br/biografias/anisio-teixeira.jhtm>. Accessed: 6 jul. 2012

 

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